Fashion and Textiles between Digitisation and AI

Prato Phygital, MIMIT-funded project for the development of 5G technology
Midjourney, outcome of 'Fashion editorial with models' prompt, 2023
Acne Studio, F/W 2020 men's collection in collaboration with Robbie Barrat and AI, 2020

key details

11 April 2024
Online on Zoom
3pm — 5pm (CET)


The online course, curated by Elisabetta Cianfanelli, Paolo Franzo, Leonardo Giliberti, and Margherita Tufarelli (University of Florence), investigates the digital transition taking place in the fashion system and the implications of the diffusion of artificial intelligence in creative and production processes.

Through the presentation of a series of research projects and case studies, the ‘phygital’ landscape that has been characterising the textile and clothing industry in recent years will be analysed. It will explore how, in this evolution, archives are being transformed into multi-sensory and multi-vocal datasets that can be drawn on through algorithms to create new content, thanks to a redefinition of professional skills and design methodologies.


Elisabetta Cianfanelli

Full professor in Design, she has been president of the master’s degree course in Fashion System Design until 2023.

She is co-responsible for CU 2 of the Doctorate of National Interest ‘Design for Made in Italy’, scientific responsible for UniFI of the inter-university research centre ‘Fashioning AI’ and director of the journal Fashion Highlight.

Paolo Franzo

PhD at Iuav, he has been a researcher in fashion design at the University of Florence since 2023.

His international and transdisciplinary research activity focuses on the ecological and digital transition in fashion, in particular on pre-consumer waste in the textile-clothing industry and AI in fashion design.

Leonardo Giliberti

He is a PhD student at the University of Florence within the PON Research and Innovation programme with a thesis on the role of artificial intelligence in fashion design and its production processes.

He carried out a research period at the Lisbon School of Architecture of the University of Lisbon

Margherita Tufarelli

PhD, she is a researcher in fashion design at the University of Florence. Her research interests concern the opportunities and impacts of digital transformation on design, production and communication processes in the textile and fashion industry.

Her most recent research projects include: Prato Phygital and E tex – The haptic Library.

Fashion and Textiles between Digitisation and AI

3D Digital Investigation for Canvases and Painted Panels

Colour and 3D rendering of San Giorgio by Cosmé Tura at Galleria di Palazzo Cini
Detail of the surface of The Crucifixion by the Master of the Lindau Lamentation, courtesy of Museum Catharijne Convent
Printing the colour of the facsimile of The Crucifixion by the Master of the Lindau Lamentation © Oak Taylor Smith for Factum Foundation
The Lucida 3D Scanner recording The Creation of the Animals © Factum Foundation
Recording The Creation of the Animals by Tintoretto at Gallerie dell'Accademia © Factum Foundation
Handwoven historical patterns recostructions at Factum Foundation

key details

7 and 14 March 2024
Online on Zoom
3pm — 5pm (CET)


Online course featuring two projects undertaken by ARCHiVe, alongside other case studies: the digitisation of the Palazzo Cini Gallery (47 panel paintings) and the digitisation of a painting by Jacopo Tintoretto from the collections of the Gallerie dell’Accademia in Venice (The Creation of the Animals, 1550-1553). The course offers a detailed examination of the digital recording of these works and the investigative opportunities afforded solely through the three-dimensional digital recording of painting surfaces and supports.

In addition to unveiling 3D digital acquisition techniques, the meetings are intended as moments of restitution and exchange to disseminate the research possible thanks to this type of technology applied to Cultural Heritage. Therefore, the course shares the outcomes of the reconstruction of The Crucifixion by the Master of Lamentation from Lindau in Utrecht and the recreation of historical textile patterns derived from digital analyses of pictorial surfaces on both panel and canvas.


Class 1 March 7, 2024

Painting on panel

  • Luca Massimo Barbero | Fondazione Giorgio Cini
  • Sanne Frequin | University of Utrecht
  • Carlos Bayod Lucini | Factum Foundation

Two case studies compared: the three-dimensional recording of panel paintings in the Gallery of Palazzo Cini in Venice and the reconstruction of The Crucifixion by the Master of Lamentation of Lindau in Utrecht.


On this occasion the results of the first three-dimensional, high-resolution digitisation campaign of the painted panels in Palazzo Cini, carried out by the Factum Foundation in collaboration with the Cini Foundation, will be presented. The campaign is part of the activities promoted by the Foundation to preserve, publicise and make the collections more accessible.

Next, the results of a project to digitise, digitally restore and rematerialise a panel work from the first half of the 15th century, the Crucifixion by the Master of Lamentation of Lindau, the result of a collaboration between Factum Foundation, Museum Catharijne Convent, Utrecht University, Leiden University and Technische Universiteit Delft. The project intends to demonstrate how digital technologies and facsimile production can be part of the decision-making process in the field of conservation, becoming a possible alternative to physical intervention on the objects.

Class 2 March 14, 2024

Painting on canvas

  • Cleo Nisse | University of Groeningen
  • Helena Loermans | Lab O
  • Carlos Bayod Lucini | Factum Foundation

The analysis and creation of historical textile patterns and the digitisation of Tintoretto’s The Creation of Animals as case studies.


The second appointment, dedicated to paintings on canvas and the micro-analysis of the supports, sees the participation of a weaver specialised in the manual creation of historical textile patterns to support technical art history (particularly Italian and Spanish between the 15th and 17th centuries) to present a recent rematerialisation project made possible thanks to the digital acquisition of the original supports. This will be followed by a researcher who focuses her investigations precisely on canvas supports in relation to the pictorial language of Venetian works from Bellini to Tintoretto. In both cases, the aim is to demonstrate how this type of micrometric investigation can now be carried out more comprehensively thanks to high-resolution three-dimensional digital surveys.


luca massimo barbero

Historian and critic of modern and contemporary art, he is Director of the Institute of Art History at the Fondazione Giorgio Cini in Venice, and scientific advisor to the Lucio Fontana Foundation in Milan. He is the author of numerous publications and exhibitions on the art of the Italian post World War II period.

sanne frequin

She is an art historian who specialises in digital art history. Her research focuses on the digital reconstruction of lost or damaged artefacts and on the use of digitised artefacts for research and education. The projects of Sanne Frequin concern mediaeval and early modern art and digital reconstruction. Sanne Frequin is the academic coordinator of the master Art History at Utrecht University.

A portrait of professor Sanne Frequin. A woman wearing glasses smiles at the camera with confidence.

carlos bayod lucini

He is Project Director at the Factum Foundation. His work is dedicated to the development and application of digital technology to the conservation, study and dissemination of Cultural Heritage. Bayod has taught at the MS in Historic Preservation at Columbia University in New York among other institutions, and is a frequent speaker for centers such as Museo del Prado, Harvard Art Museums and Fondazione Giorgio Cini. 

Portrait of architect Carlos Bayod looking intensely at the camera.

cleo nisse

She is Assistant Professor of Early Modern European Art at the University of Groningen. Her research concentrates on the materials, techniques, and meanings of artistic practices, complemented by a concern for how artworks change over time. After postgraduate studies in painting conservation at the Courtauld Institute, her Columbia University PhD investigated the significance of canvas supports for Venetian painting from Bellini to Tintoretto.

A portrait of professor Cleo Nisse smiling at the camera immersed in the nature.

helena loermans

She has been a weaver since 1960. Now a member of CIETA, in 2017 she founded Lab O, a research laboratory focusing on the hand-woven patterned canvases used by the Spanish and Italian Old Masters. Photomicrographs, x-ray images, 3D recordings and softwares for generating weave drafts, allowed Loermans at Lab O, to reconstruct the weave drafts of patterns in Old Master paintings’ canvases and reweave the textiles on a hand loom.

Portrait of the weaver Helena Loermans. A mature woman posing in front of the camera showing confidence and a smiling face. She is wearing a bright yellow tunic and flamboyant necklaces.
1/2 3D Digital Investigation for Canvases and Painted Panels

1st Workshop on Analysis and Recording of Cultural Heritage in Venice

Participants visiting Fondazione Giorgio Cini Photolibrary © Osama Dawod
3D recording using photogrammetry at Fondazione Giorgio Cini during the workshop © Osama Dawod
Ilenia Maschietto presenting Fondazione Giorgio Cini' Rare Books Collection © Osama Dawod
Class on Rare Books in the Manica Lunga Library © Osama Dawod
Recording Rare Books at ARCHiVe during the workshop © Osama Dawod
Recording with Lucida 3D Scanner at Palazzo Cini Gallery © ARCHiVe
Photogrammetry lesson at Palazzo Cini Gallery © ARCHiVe
Group photo with workshop participants and lecturers © ARCHiVe

key details

9 October — 13 October 2023
Venice, Island of San Giorgio Maggiore
30 hours; 9:30am — 6:30pm


One of the main goals of ARCHiVe is to increase in person training through specific workshops that attract students and professionals from diverse backgrounds with diverse skills. Based on previous experiences in Columbia University (NYC), Palazzo Te (Mantua) and other institutions, the first ARCHiVe Onsite Academy one-week (30 hours) workshop in Venice took place in October 2023.

This training initiative focused on the application of non-contact, high-resolution digital technologies to document a selection of art, archival, and architectural elements of great historical interest. The workshop introduced participants to specific 2D and 3D digitisation techniques and methods that ARCHiVe has pioneered in recent years through various cutting-edge projects in Venice and internationally.

Following a learning-by-doing approach, the course included both theoretical and practical training. It was designed for a select group of participants, including students and professionals with diverse backgrounds, who had the opportunity to learn directly from experts at Factum Foundation and Fondazione Giorgio Cini. The workshop addressed the theme of the diversity of documentary types and artifacts within the rich collections of Fondazione Giorgio Cini, serving as an example of the variety of Cultural Heritage in general. The diversity aspect poses significant technical and scientific challenges, as distinct materials require various approaches and technologies for managing, recording, and enhancing the Heritage.


October 9, 2023

Theory Session 1

  • Costanza Blaskovic
  • Ilenia Maschietto
  • Joan Porcel
  • Valentina Venturi

Beginning with a general introduction to ARCHiVe and to Cini’s collections, the class continues with the fundamentals of photography theory applied to digitisation of cultural heritage. Special highlight is given to the 2D recording systems developed and employed at ARCHiVe: the participants visit ARCHiVe laboratory to observe the recording technologies in action.

The session ends with a comprehensive guided tour of Fondazione Giorgio Cini, covering the cloisters, the monumental staircase, the photolibraries, and libraries, with a particular focus on the rare books collection in the Manica Lunga Library. There the participants have the opportunity to analyse a showcase of a selection of unique or rare pieces from the library collections, guided through the history of books and print.

October 10, 2023

Hands-on Practical 2D recording + 2D post-processing

  • Irene Bigolin
  • Costanza Blaskovic
  • Joan Porcel

The first hands-on session of the workshop see the participants divided in small groups to record a selection of documents with Replica scanner, V-scanner, and Vacuum plane. Each student gets a chance to try every recording system while digitising: 

  • a rare book from the Fondazione Giorgio Cini collection: Aelius Donatus, Pro impetrando ad rempublicam litterariam… Venezia, Lucantonio Giunta, 1510. 
  • documents from Ettore Sottsass Jr. (1907-2017) archive: photographic positives, notes, booklets, correspondence, and other loose sheets, part of the architecture and design projects of the author’s archive at Cini. 

Then, an introduction to specific methods for post-processing 2D image file awaits the participants: processing, management, and archiving systems for 2D information, and the potential of AI in data management. 

October 10, 2023

Hands-on Practical 3D recording

  • Carlos Bayod
  • Osama Dawod
  • Carolina Gris

Divided into three groups, the participants get specific training and work with Lucida, Photogrammetry and LiDAR, recording different areas and artworks of Fondazione Cini.

The participants are trained to the technical and practical aspects of the recording with the different systems and get to know which methods should be used for the different type of artworks and locations (paintings, scultpures, architectures). 

Each day one group dedicates to one system so that by the end of the week each student gets a chance to practice for a whole session with every 3D recording system.

October 11, 2023

Theory session 2 + 3D post-processing

  • Carlos Bayod
  • Osama Dawod
  • Carolina Gris

The third day starts with a theory class about 3D digital preservation: skills, methods, results, and uses. 

Then, the class introduces to the post-processing of data recorded with Lucida. 

Ther materials recorded with Lucida included: 

  • two canvases from the Foresteria of Fondazione Cini (Paesaggio con figure e Paesaggio con cascata e figure, attributed to Marco Ricci, C. XVII-XVIII).

October 11, 2023

Hands-on Practical 3D recording 

  • Carlos Bayod
  • Osama Dawod
  • Carolina Gris

The workshop continues with a visit to the refectory of the Fondazione to analyse the Nozze di Cana facsimile (created by Factum in 2006) on the way to the recording sites of Foresteria and Corridor of Art History Institute at Fondazione Cini.

There, the groups work with Lucida, Photogrammetry and LiDAR recording different artpieces and getting specific training for each technique. 

October 12, 2023

Theory session 3 + 3D post-processing

  • Costanza Blaskovic
  • Osama Dawod
  • Ilenia Maschietto
  • Valentina Venturi
  • Joan Porcel Pascual

The fourth day continue with a theory class about 2D digital preservation, with a focus on the creation of digital libraries and digital archives (including archival description and architecture of data).

Follows an introduction to the post-processing of data recorded with Photogrammetry.

The pieces recorded with Photogrammetry included:

  • high and low reliefs in the corridor of the Art History Institute of Fondazione Cini (C. XV-XVI).

October 12, 2023

Hands-on Practical 3D recording

  • Carlos Bayod
  • Osama Dawod
  • Carolina Gris

The workshop moves to the Galleria of Palazzo Cini where the participants have the opportunity of visiting the exhibiting spaces. There, the groups work with Lucida, Photogrammetry and LiDAR on a selection of artworks:

  • with Lucida the participants practice on two canvases from the Palazzo Cini Gallery (Testa di orientale dalla barba scura, Lorenzo Tiepolo, and Testa di orientale dalla barba grigia, Giandomenico Tiepolo, 1753-1755);
  • using Photogrammetry they focus on the recording of a wooden sculpture from the Cini collection (Madonna con il bambino, late C. XIV – beginning XV);
  • LiDAR thecnology is used to record the interiors of Palazzo Cini (as well as the Cini’s Foresteria during the previous days).

October 13, 2023

Theory session 4

  • Carlos Bayod

Concludes the classes a theory session about 3D digital preservation with the presentation of relevant case studies.

With the support of the instructors, each group gathers the data acquired and post-processed during the past week to prepare a conclusive presentation to be shared in the afternoon with the colleagues, the instructors and a selected audience of experts.

October 13, 2023

Final presentation of the preliminary results of the workshop

  • all participants

Each group present to the audience two recording techniques (one 2D and one 3D) summarising the tasks for capturing, processing and archiving the data from a technical point of view.

Moreover, each team proposes possible outputs for the data: how to use the recorded information to preserve, study and disseminate cultural heritage.


“This workshop was instrumental in enhancing my capabilities and it also allowed me to learn from well-regarded institutions in the field. The accessibility and kindness of everyone involved in the workshop created a supportive atmosphere that I believe should be fostered within our professional community.”

“Your teams introduced me to numerous new possibilities for applying digital technologies in research, recording, preservation, and the reuse of cultural heritage. I am truly grateful for this enriching experience.”

“The practical training has been really valuable for me, because I had less experience in that. The training did confirm to me that I see myself working in this field and further develop my skills. I also loved the diversity in backgrounds and network wise the training has thus also been really meaningful!”

“The background diversity has been a strength point and a key value of the course. The course has represented an opportunity to enlarge horizons and have an interdisciplinary dialogue.”


LiDAR 3D Scanning

LiDAR is a 3D recording method that uses laser pulses to measure distance. It produces a 'point cloud' of xyz coordinates, which can be turned into a 3D model. LiDAR complements other recording method[...]

Lucida 3D Scanner

The Lucida 3D Scanner is a non-contact laser recording system that captures high-resolution surface texture data for low-relief surfaces. It records 3D data in 48 cm x 48 cm ’tiles’ by projecting [...]


Photogrammetry is a 3D recording technique that uses 2D images to create a digital 3D model of an object or surface. It involves taking hundreds of overlapping photographs and processing them using sp[...]


The Replica 360 Recto/Verso is a cutting edge recording system designed and realised by Factum Foundation. Its first prototype was conceived for Fondazione Cini back in 2015 for the Replica Project wh[...]

Reproduction Stand

The reproduction stand is a system for acquiring two-dimensional material in a small format (approx. 20x30 cm) created within Fondazione Cini. In response to the need to digitise photographic negat[...]

V Scanner

The V Scanner is a photographic set built within Fondazione Cini. Based on an open-access design and adapted to the needs of Cini's book collections, it is meant to acquire bound material quickly and [...]

Vacuum Table

The vacuum table is a system for acquiring two-dimensional documents. Created within Fondazione Cini, gives a response to the need to digitise large-format documents, delicate, creased or folded. The [...]

ARCHiOx. Exploring the potential of photometric stereo 3D capture

Heatmap render of the Aršāma Sigil © ARCHiOx
Render highlighting the conservation state of an object © ARCHiOx
Copper printing plate recorded with Selene © ARCHiOx

key details

24 May, 7 June 2023
Online on Zoom
3pm — 5pm (CET)


Funded by the Helen Hamlyn Trust, ARCHiOx – Analysis and Recording of Cultural Heritage in Oxford – is a collaborative project, bringing together Oxford University’s Bodleian Libraries and the Factum Foundation.  Based in Madrid, the Factum Foundation specialise in high-resolution 3D imaging and have worked in cultural heritage institutions throughout the world, producing exceptional, three-dimensional facsimiles of artworks and artefacts. The very latest 3D recording technology conceived and developed by the Factum Foundation is being piloted at the Bodleian and has been used to reveal near-invisible text and artwork from originals in the Bodleian’s collections.  The ARCHiOx recordings serve two purposes:  data can be used to create renders which show the 3D surface of an original in order to reveal what is difficult or impossible to record through conventional photography, or for the purposes of creating incredibly accurate 3D facsimiles.  Working closely with researchers and experts, the project has been responsible for making and documenting multiple exciting discoveries.


  • John Barrett | Senior Photographer for the Bodleian Libraries


Class 1 May 24, 2023

Recording and dissemination of 3D data, captured using the Selene Photometric Stereo Recording System

  • John Barrett | Senior Photographer for the Bodleian Libraries
  • Jorge Cano | Head of Technology at Factum Arte and Factum Foundation
  • Richard Allen | Software Engineer for BDLSS

In this session John Barrett presents a collection of incredible new recordings made using the Factum Foundation’s latest 3D recording system, the Selene.  The recordings have been made from originals from broad range of the Bodleian Libraries’ world-class collections. Jorge Cano, designer of the Selene, explains the philosophy behind the Selene and discuss the technology and specifications of the system. Richard Allen demonstrates online viewers for dissemination of 3D recordings, and newly developed tools which will allow users to interact with them.

Class 2 June 7, 2023

Analysis and interpretation: How 3D recordings and other technological innovations are supporting research

  • John Barrett | Senior Photographer for the Bodleian Libraries
  • Jo Story | Professor of Early Medieval History at the University of Leicester
  • Jessica Hodgkinson | PhD candidate at the University of Leicester
  • Alessandro Bianchi | Manager of the Bodleian Japanese Library
  • Elaine Anstee | Head of Imaging for the Bodleian Libraries

In this session John Barrett introduces a panel of experts who will explain how 3D recording and other technological innovations have assisted with their research. Jo Story and Jessica Hodgkinson discuss how photometric stereo recordings and other technologies have aided their research into Anglo-Saxon manuscripts and medieval book culture. Alessandro Bianchi explores how 3D recording may hold the key to understanding how Japanese prints were made, and how 3D renders can be used for assessing their condition. The session begins with a description of how ARCHiOx was established and structured, by Elaine Anstee.


John Barrett

John Barrett is a Senior Photographer for the Bodleian Libraries.  Since 2005, John has provided photographs of Bodleian originals for numerous publications. His work involves the development of new methods of recording special collections material. He is the author of Imaging Guidelines for the Digitization of Rare and Special Materials, a document commissioned by the Bodleian Library.

Jorge Cano

Jorge Cano is currently Head of Technology at Factum Arte and Factum Foundation. He has developed a multidisciplinary career working in the intersections of art and technology. Cano is an expert in 3D recording, image filtering and Geographical Information Systems. For Factum he has developed several scanners and numerous tools for data processing. His latest design, the Selene Scanner, has been used by the Bodleian Library allowing imaging specialists and researchers to look at ancient objects with new eyes.

Richard Allen

Richard Allen is a Software Engineer for BDLSS (Bodleian Digital Library Systems and Services) where he works primarily supporting Digital Bodleian and the Imaging Studio DAMS.  He is also CEO of an Oxford University spinout company that specialises in photogrammetry.

Jessica Hodgkinson

Jessica Hodgkinson is a PhD candidate at the University of Leicester funded by the Midlands4Cities doctoral training partnership. Her research explores the participation of women in early medieval book culture in Western Europe through the analysis of surviving manuscripts commissioned, copied, owned and/or used by them.

Jo Story

Jo Story is professor of Early Medieval History at the University of Leicester. Interdisciplinary methodologies and approaches to evidence are central to her research and publications. Her current research centres on ‘Insular Manuscripts’ that were made in Ireland or the Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms or in monasteries founded by Irish or Anglo-Saxon missionaries on the Continent in the period between c. 600–900 CE.

Alessandro Bianchi

Alessandro Bianchi is the manager of the Bodleian Japanese Library and curator of the Bodleian collection of Japanese rare books and manuscripts. After receiving his Ph.D. from the University of Cambridge, he worked at the British Library, the Smithsonian’s National Museum of Asian Art, and taught at Haverford College. Alessandro is also a Visiting Researcher (2022/23) at the Art Research Centre of Ritsumeikan University.

Elaine Anstee

Elaine Anstee has been Head of Imaging for the Bodleian Libraries since October 2021. With a background in Administration and Finance she focuses on the policies and procedures supporting the ARCHiOx project in addition to the business as usual work in the Imaging department

1/2 ARCHiOx. Exploring the potential of photometric stereo 3D capture
2/2 ARCHiOx. Exploring the potential of photometric stereo 3D capture